They are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance; of the two, the Birth is even better known than the Primavera.  Venus appears here in her character as a goddess of marriage, clothed and with her hair modestly covered, as married women were expected to appear in public.. Primavera has been reproduced, copied and admired the world over. Please see below for a summarised list of the best Botticelli paintings that are featured throughout this website. Chloris appears shocked at her sudden abduction and the story continues with Chloris being impregnated or raped by Zephyrus's breath. Many scholars see it as a unique time with characteristics all its own.  The Neoplatonic philosophers saw Venus as ruling over both earthly and divine love and argued that she was the classical equivalent of the Virgin Mary; this is alluded to by the way she is framed in an altar-like setting that is similar to contemporary images of the Virgin Mary. It is now held at the Uffizi in Florence, Italy and has been there for many years, becoming one of the major draws of an impressive collection in the city where the Renaissance first began. This idea is reinforced by the prominent display of his sword. It is also the Garden of the Hesperides of classical myth, from which the golden apples used in the Judgement of Paris came; the Hellenistic Greeks had decided that these were citrus fruits, exotic to them. Botticelli was away in Rome for many months in 1481/82, painting in the Sistine Chapel, and suggested dates are in recent years mostly later than this, but still sometimes before. This painting has received as much study and research as almost any other painting from the Renaissance period but few complete decisions have ever really been made, leading to yet more conjecture over the meaning of the painting, the significance of the other characters besides Venus and many other issues related to this work. Some experts have suggested that these were companion paintings and hung in the same room. But Mercury seems clearly to be looking above him, as he works on the clouds. Here a group of three Graces, possibly Beauty, Chastity and Voluptas hold hands and appear to dance together in a circle. , Of the very many literary sources that may have fed into the painting, the clearest was first noted in modern times by Aby Warburg in 1893, in his seminal dissertation on the painting. In classical art (but not literature) they are normally nude, and typically stand still as they hold hands, but the depiction here is very close to one adapting Seneca by Leon Battista Alberti in his De pictura (1435), which Botticelli certainly knew. Probably ground-breaking for the content it depicted, Primavera deserves the incredible attention and adoration it now receives. Some writers have suggested that it was commissioned by Lorenzo the Magnificent but it seems that is could also have been commissioned by his cousin, Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco di Medici for his wedding on 19th July 1482 to Semiramide Appiano. They stayed in Castello until 1815, when they were transferred to the Uffizi. It still continues to stimulate lively debate. (Kenneth Clark), The origin of the painting is unclear. Detailed elements worth checking out have included Flora who stands immediately next to Venus, Mercury who may have been modeled after Giuliano de Medici, Zephyrus and Chloris who are to the far right of the painting, plus also The Three Graces who play together to the nearest left of Venus. All of the links included within this website offer Primavera as a high quality print for those looking to add one of Botticelli's finest paintings to their home or office wall.  Venus' hand gesture of welcome, probably directed to the viewer, is the same as that used by Mary to the Archangel Gabriel in contemporary paintings of the Annunciation. Primavera (Italian pronunciation: [primaˈveːra], meaning "Spring"), is a large panel painting in tempera paint by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli made in the late 1470s or early 1480s (datings vary). We regularly use Art.com's store ourselves for several of our favourite Italian painters and so are more than happy to recommend them to you here. His painting was entitled "Ready-Made-Bouquet". This website brings you detailed information on the Primavera painting as well as looking further into the career of Botticelli as a whole. Venus remains a key figure in many works from Italian Sandro Botticelli and her graceful figure makes her lift each and every work in which she appears, normally as the central figure. From Chloris' name the colour may be guessed to have been green – the Greek word for green is khloros, the root of words like chlorophyll – and may be why Botticeli painted Zephyr in shades of bluish-green. Above Flora's head, the viewer can see the appearance of fruit on the trees which is a sign of the lush spring growth and fertility. Coming ashore in a shell she had clothed her nakedness in myrtle, and so the plant became sacred to her. There are hundreds of plants and all of them show incredible detail and accuracy. It has been studied, analysed and interpreted over the centuries but above all it has been admired for its incredible draughtsmanship, detail and beauty. He swoops down suddenly, his cheeks puffed as he blows in. Here, the blueish-green figure, who appears quite different to the other figures, is Zephyrus, the March Wind. Next to Flora stands Venus, Goddess of Love. The Graces are beautifully drawn but with some distinct differences which has sparked much debate between experts. The Birth of Venus (Italian: Nascita di Venere [ˈnaʃʃita di ˈvɛːnere]) is a painting by the Italian artist Sandro Botticelli, probably made in the mid 1480s.It depicts the goddess Venus arriving at the shore after her birth, when she had emerged from the sea fully-grown (called Venus Anadyomene and often depicted in art). A passage in Virgil's Aeneid describes him clearing the skies with his caduceus. She is dressed in a beautiful floral gown and scatters new spring flowers which are held in the folds of her dress. In the air above her a blindfolded Cupid aims his bow to the left. It has been argued that the flowers do not grow smaller to the rear of the picture space, certainly a feature of the millefleur tapestries.. Botticelli’s Primavera and The Birth of Venus are among the most famous paintings in the world, and icons of the Italian Renaissance. Primavera is believed to be a personification of Spring and the nature sitting behind her helps to get across the idea of fertility. , It was returned to the Uffizi Gallery where it remains to the present day. Allegory of Spring is the alternative name for this painting which was created by Botticelli in 1482 and was made from tempera on panel. Thinking has been somewhat changed by the publication in 1975 of an inventory from 1499 of the collection of Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de' Medici. The subject was first described as Primavera by the art historian Giorgio Vasari who saw it at Villa Castello, just outside Florence, by 1550. The magnificent, original tempura painting on a wooden panel, measuring 202cm by 314cm, hangs in the Uffizi Gallery Museum in Florence. RENAISSANCE. Artist Sandro remains one of the most popular within the whole of Art.com's Renaissance section and his Primavera work is one of his most prominent of all. The 1498 inventory estimated the value of the Primavera at 100 Lira. , The interactions between the figures are enigmatic. Paintings and furniture were often given as presents celebrating weddings. The movement of the composition is from right to left, so following that direction the standard identification of the figures is: at far right "Zephyrus, the biting wind of March, kidnaps and possesses the nymph Chloris, whom he later marries and transforms into a deity; she becomes the goddess of Spring, eternal bearer of life, and is scattering roses on the ground. His figures appear graceful and almost weightless. He gives their clothing a translucent look, with exquisite details and almost lace-like texture in places. The setting is an orange-grove, oranges being a symbol of the Medici family in Florence. The wind of early Spring blows on the land and brings forth growth and flowers, presided over by Venus, goddess of April, with at the left Mercury, the god of the month of May in an early Roman calendar, chasing away the last clouds before summer. In 1956 the Belgium surrealist artist, Magritte, painted a satire featuring Flora's character in front of his own trademark bowler-hatted character. The viewer is drawn to Venus who is portrayed in the centre of the painting in a triangular arrangement that would normally feature the Virgin Mary and her son. Botticelli's Primavera portrays a scene of mythological characters as was common for this artist and the amount of detail given to each character makes it a highly interesting painting which can keep your attention for a prolonged period. This "bonfire" was encouraged by Priest Savonarola and his followers, including Botticelli. 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